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The Shared Metacognition construct was developed in the context of research on metacognition and specifically the CoI framework. The CoI theoretical framework provided the “context to conceptually and operationally define and operationalize metacognition in a socially shared environment” (Garrison, 2017, p. 62). Shared metacognition (MC) exists at the intersection of the cognitive and teaching presence constructs and goes to the heart of a deep and meaningful educational learning experience.

Metacognition is generally accepted as consisting of two components: awareness of the inquiry process and implementation strategies (regulation). Awareness allows the learner to monitor and actively manage/regulate the inquiry process. Most importantly, in a collaborative learning environment, awareness and implementation strategies are developed through critical discourse and the requirement of participants to explain and justify one's thinking to self and others.

The approach to developing a viable metacognition construct for collaborative learning environments is to subsume self and shared regulatory functions within a single construct. The Shared Metacognition construct (Garrison & Akyol, 2015a, 2015b) reflects the dynamic dimensions of self and co-regulation each exhibiting a monitoring (awareness) and a managing (strategic action) function (see figure below).


An invaluable tool in the study and practice of shared metacognition in a community of inquiry is the Shared Metacognition Questionnaire (SMQ). The SMQ has been validated (see Garrison & Akyol, 2015a, 2015b as well as Kilis & Yildirim, 2018).


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Shared metacognition
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Garrison, D. R. (2017). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Community of Inquiry Framework for Research and Practice (3rd Edition). London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

Garrison, D. R., & Akyol, Z. (2015a). Toward the development of a metacognition construct for the community of inquiry framework. (Developing a shared metacognition construct and instrument: Conceptualizing and assessing metacognition in a community of inquiry.) Internet and Higher Education, 24, 66-71.

Garrison, D. R., & Akyol, Z. (2015b). Corrigendum to 'Toward the development of a metacognition construct for communities of inquiry.' The Internet and Higher Education, 26, 56.

Kilis, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2018). Metacognition within a communities of inquiry questionnaire: Validity and reliability study of Turkish adaptation. KEFAD, 19(1), 680-690.


Stefan Overton on The CoI Community
1 month ago
Hi everyone, Great to see this site, I am currently working on my PhD looking at how personalised learning can be carried out using the CoI as a framework within a blended study mode. Hoping that the work may help other educators to understand how to develop a personalised learning strategy. Currently looking at ...

Dan Wilton on The CoI Community
1 month ago
Welcome, James! You're exploring some very interesting territory here. The intersection between the Community of Inquiry and learning analytics is likely to become an important research area over the next few years - as is the area of affective, emotional, or "multimodal" learning analytics itself, as you describe ...

James A. Allen on The CoI Community
1 month ago
Greetings everyone. COL is basically in the learning domain, however, is it possible to assess or measure entry level skills in social presence, particularly affective behaviors to determine how well the student will do initially in a course. I understand that affective behaviors are effective until the COL becomes ...

Faith Mlotsa-Mngomezulu on The CoI Community
1 month ago
Sending my greetings to everyone. I am an education practitioner from Southern Africa Nazarene University who is mainly interested in a socio-constructivist approach to education in Higher Education. With the increase in unemployment I am realizing that creativity and innovation which is an element of construction is ...

D. Randy Garrison on Motivation and the CoI Framework
1 month ago
Minghui, Thanks for your question. While this deserves a more extended response, let be briefly say that both Lipman's work and the CoI framework is grounded generally in Dewey's work, although Dewey did not used this term explicitly. We borrowed the term community of inquiry from Lipman (2003) as this reflected my ...

Minghui Ye on Motivation and the CoI Framework
1 month ago
Dear professor, recently i have read the community of inquiry that created by Lipman decades years ago. So, I am wondering the relationship between your community framework and Lipman's. Are there some relationship between learning community(Dewey) , community of inquiry(Lipman) and community of inquiry (yours)? ...

Rick Holbeck on The CoI Community
2 months ago
Thank you so much!

Dan Wilton on The CoI Community
2 months ago
Welcome to the CoI community, Rick! Yes, shared metacognition (and the closely related [socially] shared regulation of learning, see eg. Sanna Jarvela and colleagues) is a key piece of the CoI picture and I'm sure will be an important research area over the next few years. As it stands, it can be a challenging ...

Rick Holbeck on The CoI Community
2 months ago
Good afternoon from Phoenix, AZ. I am at the beginning stages of a doctoral program and have been interested in the CoI Framework. I have recently read about the construct of shared metacognition and saw that there seems to be a large gap in this area. Can someone tell me how I can view a copy of the Shared ...

Heather Saigo on The CoI Community
4 months ago
Hi Martha! Thank you for those references. I am adding them to my reading list right now. I appreciate your help! Heather
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.