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Welcome to the Community of Inquiry.

I think it is safe to say that the general perception of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework is that it is specific to an online or at best blended learning environment. The reality is, however, that the CoI framework is grounded in the higher education literature and was justified as being consistent with a traditional higher education experience. In the seminal article that introduced the CoI framework (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000) we noted the generic nature of the framework; notwithstanding we were using it to guide us in designing collaborative and constructivist online learning experiences. The latent nature of this important characteristic in our publications has largely limited the generalization and adoption of the CoI framework to broader constructivist educational contexts. As the CoI framework became more prominent in designing and studying online learning, I did make modest efforts to emphasize that based on its theoretical foundation, it is a generic framework. Regardless, the reality is that the CoI framework has been shown to provide order and insight into the essence of deep and meaningful constructivist educational experiences across contexts and modes of communication.


As a part of this doctoral thesis students’ teaching presence were studied. The purpose of the thesis has been to explore how students support their own and other students' process of inquiry while engaging in online tutoring sessions, as well as to study how their support can be connected to students’ expressions of teaching presence.

In order to study students’ interactions, chat messages were collected from an online text-based chat system. The method of transcript analysis from the Relationship of Inquiry (RoI) framework, the coding scheme developed in the frame of this thesis, was used to analyze the data. The RoI framework is adapted from the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, adjusted for the case of only one student and one teacher, such as tutoring sessions where the student and the tutor are encouraged to create a relationship of inquiry. The RoI framework adopted the three presences from the CoI framework, but also added the fourth element emotional presence. Using the developed RoI coding scheme students’ messages was analyzed, with focus on students’ expressions of teaching presence. Through analysis of these expressions, students’ support of their own and other students’ process of inquiry, as well as connections towards metacognitive development, may be found.




Graham Lean
Joined September 21, 2023

Joined September 18, 2023
College English teacher, Hengshui University, Hebei Province, China, China

Jennifer Spiegel
Joined September 9, 2023
Instructor, University Canada West, Canada
Jennifer Spiegel has enjoyed teaching English for Academic Purposes and English Literature in various contexts for over twenty years. In

Stephanie Howell
Joined August 28, 2023
Gold EDu, United States

Oyesola Oluwakemi
Joined August 27, 2023
universite Cote d'Azur, Nice, France

CoI Framework in Face-to-Face Environments
D. Randy Garrison
August 1, 2023
I think it is safe to say that the general perception of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework is that it is

Online Learning and AI
D. Randy Garrison
May 19, 2023
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a hot topic within many professions in terms of considering the

CoI Effectiveness and Future Development
D. Randy Garrison
April 18, 2023
In previous posts specific to the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework I offered evidence of its general

Cognitive Presence Update
D. Randy Garrison
January 25, 2023
The cognitive presence (CP) construct describes the essence of the inquiry process within a community of

COVID-19 online learning: Lessons learned?
D. Randy Garrison
December 7, 2022
The evidence is becoming clear regarding the success or failure of online learning duringCOVID-19.

Students' support of their own and other students' process of inquiry in an online chat system
Malin Jansson
October 13, 2022
As a part of this doctoral thesis students’ teaching presence were studied. The purpose of the thesis has been to explore how students support their own and other students'

LACOI: Representation of a Community of Inquiry in Cooperative Online-based Courses through Learning Analytics
Lisa-Maria Norz, Elske Ammenwerth, Werner Hackl, Verena Dornauer, Eva Kaczko
September 23, 2020
The Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology UMIT TIROL (

Use of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model in the analysis and evaluation of courses at UNED (Spain)
Inés Gil-Jaurena
March 26, 2018
The project (March-December 2018) analyzed the educational practices in 25 courses delivered at UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), Spain, using the"Community

Recent learning development activities
Martha Cleveland-Innes
January 8, 2018

iMOOCs and Learning to Learn Online
Martha Cleveland-Innes, Nathaniel Ostashewski, Dan Wilton
August 25, 2017
Athabasca University is known for its leadership and innovation in
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.