The Community of Inquiry makes use of cookies. By continuing, you consent to this use. More information.
Online Classroom or Community-in-the-Making? Instructor Conceptualizations and Teaching Presence in International Online Contexts
Morgan, Tannis

JournalJournal of Distance Education
Volume 25, Issue 1
CountryCanada, North America

The community of inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000 ) has been an important contribution to the online distance education field and has been useful in providing researchers with the construct of "teaching presence". Teaching presence as described by the framework provides insight into the types of interactions instructors make in online teaching, but is less useful in helping to understand the why’s of instructors’ interactive decisions. In this study, activity theory (Engestrom, 1999, 2001) was adopted as a theoretical framework to understand the why’s of teaching presence, revealing a complex negotiation between instructors as subjects and the mediating components of the activity system. The article suggests that a shift to understanding teaching presence within a sociocultural perspective has important implications for teaching and design, as well as the methodologies inherent in the community of inquiry framework. A sociocultural definition of teaching presence is provided in attempt to provide a broader understanding of this construct.

Le cadre de référence sur les communautés d’enquête (Community of Inquiry Framework)(Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) a été une contribution importante au domaine de l’éducation à distance en ligne et a permis de fournir aux chercheurs le concept de la « présence enseignante » (teaching presence). La présence enseignante, telle que décrite par le cadre de référence nous permet de mieux comprendre les différents types d’interactions qu’ont les instructeurs lors de l’enseignement en ligne, mais est moins utile lorsqu’il s’agit de comprendre le pourquoi des décisions prises par les instructeurs au niveau de leurs interactions. Dans la présente étude, la théorie de l’activité (activity theory) (Engestrom, 1999, 2001) a été employée comme cadre de référence théorique afin de comprendre le pourquoi de la présence enseignante, révélant ainsi une négociation complexe entre les instructeurs en tant que sujets et les éléments médiateurs du système d’activité. L’article suggère qu’un virage vers une compréhension de la présence enseignante, d’un point de vue socioculturel, a d’importantes implications au niveau de l’enseignement et de la conception, de même qu’au niveau des méthodologies inhérentes au cadre de référence sur les communautés d’enquête. Une définition socioculturelle de la présence enseignante est proposée afin de tenter de fournir une compréhension plus étendue de ce concept.

Keywords teaching presence · community of inquiry · activity theory · sociocultural theory · distance education · online learning · international

CoI focusTeaching presence
MethodologyActivity theory
Study designInterview
Data analysisTranscript analysis
Study aim"This article discusses one of the findings of my study on the negotiation of teaching presence in international, online distance education (DE) courses: the influence of instructor conceptualizations on their teaching presence."
Finding"... there is considerable variation in how an instructor perceives the interaction spaces within a course and even when two interaction spaces (such as a discussion forum topic) share the same functions and objectives, there can be variation between the two instructors."
RightsCC BY
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar

Viewed by 0 distinct readers


The evaluations below represent the judgements of our readers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the CoI editors.


Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Sub-Construct of Teaching Presence’s in the Community of Inquiry
Nasir, M. Khalid M.; Surat, Shahlan; Maat, Siti Mistima; Karim, Aidah Abd; Daud, Md. Yusoff
This study aims to re-examine the reliability and validity of three sub-constructs in measuring the level of teaching presence from one of the essential elements in the Community of Inquiry model. The measurement ...
Match: teaching presence; community of inquiry; online learning

Dual Perspectives on the Contribution of On-Site Facilitators to Teaching Presence in a Blended Learning Environment
de la Varre, Claire; Keane, Julie; Irvin, Matthew J.
This study examines online instructors’ views of on-site facilitators’ practices and activities that help high school students taking online courses. A qualitative analysis of end-of-course interview data with ...
Match: teaching presence; distance education; online learning

The Development of a Community of Inquiry over Time in an Online Course: Understanding the Progression and Integration of Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presence
Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy
The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of an online educational experience through the lens of the Community of Inquiry framework. Transcript analysis of online discussion postings and the Community of ...
Match: teaching presence; transcript analysis; community of inquiry; online learning; canada

Teaching presence in computer conferencing learning environments: Effects on interaction, cognition and learning uptake
Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
This exploratory study examined how the level and nature of teaching presence impacted two online forum discussions from three dimensions: participation and interaction, cognitive presence, and knowledge development via ...
Match: teaching presence; transcript analysis

Online instructional effort measured through the lens of teaching presence in the community of inquiry framework: A re-examination of measures and approach
Shea, Peter; Hayes, Suzanne; Vickers, Jason
With more than 4 million students enrolled in online courses in the US alone (Allen & Seaman, 2010), it is now time to inquire into the nature of instructional effort in online environments. Reflecting the community of ...
Match: teaching presence; community of inquiry

Students’ and teachers’ perceived teaching presence in online courses
Wang, Yang; Stein, David; Shen. Shusheng
Differences in how students and teachers understand online teaching presence play a key role in teaching design. To explore how students and teachers perceive teaching presence, this study surveyed 1,041 students and 18 ...
Match: teaching presence; community of inquiry

A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses
Shea, Peter; Li, Chun Sau; Pickett, Alexandra
This paper focuses on two components of a model for online teaching and learning—“teaching presence” and “community”. It is suggested that previous research points to the critical role that community plays in ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning

Does "teaching presence" exist in online MBA courses?
Arbaugh, J. B.; Hwang, Alvin
This paper assesses the construct validity of the dimensions of teaching presence, one of three types of presence articulated in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. (2000). ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning

Exploring Community College Student Perceptions of Online Learning
Morris, Terry Ann
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore community college student perceptions of online learning within the theoretical construct of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model, which describes the manner in which ...
Match: teaching presence; community of inquiry; distance education; online learning

Teaching and social presences supporting basic needs satisfaction in online learning environments: How can presences and basic needs happily meet online?
Turk, Murat; Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.
This study examined the hypothesized relationships between perceived teaching presence and social presence accounting for social-contextual factors in online learning environments and online students’ basic ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.