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A Construct Revalidation of the Community of Inquiry Survey: Empirical Evidence for a General Factor Under a Bifactor Structure
Yang, Hongwei and Su, Jian

Published22 November 2021
JournalInternational Journal of Open and Distance Learning
Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 22-40
CountryUnited States, North America

ABSTRACT
The study revisited the community of inquiry (CoI) instrument for construct revalidation. To that end, the study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine four competing models (unidimensional, correlated-factor, second-order factor, and bifactor models) on model fit statistics computed using parameter estimates from a statistical estimator for ordinal categorical data . The CFA identifie d as the optimal structure the bifactor model where all items loaded on their intended domains and the existence of the general factor was supported, essentially evidence of construct validity for the instrument. The study further examined the bifactor model using mostly model-based reliability measures. The findings confirmed the contributions of the general factor to the reliability of instrument scores. The study concluded with validity and reliability evidence for the bifactor model, supported the model as a valid and reliable representation of the CoI instrument and a fuller representation of the CoI theoretical framework, and recommended its use in CoI-related research and practice in online education.

Keywords community of inquiry, teaching presence, social presence, cognitive presence, bifactor model, construct revalidation

CoI focusFull model
MethodologyQuantitative
PopulationGraduate
Data analysisFactor analysis
InstrumentCoI survey
ContributionEmpirical
Sample size238
Study aim"Revisited the community of inquiry (CoI) instrument for construct revalidation."
Finding"Confirmed the contributions of the general factor to the reliability of instrument scores. The study concluded with validity and reliability evidence for the bifactor model, supported the model as a valid and reliable representation of the CoI instrument and a fuller representation of the CoI theoretical framework, and recommended its use in CoI-related research and practice in online education."
Published atCanada
LanguageEnglish
ISSN1492-3831
RefereedYes
RightsPublic domain
DOI10.19173/irrodl.v22i4.5587
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar


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The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.