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Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample
Arbaugh, J. B. · Cleveland-Innes, Martha · Diaz, Sebastian R. · Garrison, D. Randy · Ice, Philip · Richardson, Jennifer C. · Swan, Karen P.

Published2008
JournalThe Internet and Higher Education
Volume 11, Issue 3-4, Pages 133-136
CountryUnited States, Canada, North America

ABSTRACT
This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive presence, thereby providing additional support for the validity of the CoI as a framework for constructing effective online learning environments. While factor analysis supported the idea of teaching presence as a construct, it also suggested that the construct consisted of two factors—one related to course design and organization and the other related to instructor behavior during the course. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications of further refinement of the CoI measures for researchers, designers, administrators, and instructors.

Keywords community of inquiry · cognitive presence · teaching presence · social presence

CoI focusFull model
PopulationGraduate
Study designCase study
Data analysisPrincipal components analysis
InstrumentCoI survey
ContributionMethodological
Sample size287
Study aim"... reporting on the development and testing of an instrument to measure the CoI framework using a multi-institutional sample."
Finding"The Principal Components Analysis of the data supports the construct validity of Teaching Presence, Social Presence and Cognitive Presence as measured by the CoI. However, when allowing for any possible number of factors in the analysis, eigenvalues indicate a potential fourth factor, while the scree plot yields inconclusive results."
LanguageEnglish
RefereedYes
Rights2008 Elsevier Inc.
DOI10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.06.003
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar


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The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.