The Community of Inquiry makes use of cookies. By continuing, you consent to this use. More information.
Care, Communication, Support: Core for Designing Meaningful Online Collaborative Learning
Robinson, Heather A. · Kilgore, Whitney · Warren, Scott J.

Published2 December 2017
JournalOnline Learning
Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 29-51
CountryUnited States, North America

The purpose of this study was to identify emergent themes regarding higher education instructors’ perceptions concerning the provision of collaborative learning activities and opportunities in their online classroom. Through semi-structured interviews, instructors voiced their teaching experiences and reported specifically about the online collaborative opportunities offered in their online classrooms. A multi-phase coding process was used to analyze the information, including the constant comparative coding method for theme and category development. The three main themes that emerged from this study are: online communication approaches matter, challenges and supports for online collaborative learning, and care is at the core of online learner support. In the online classroom there are additional considerations included in developing successful online collaborative learning beyond group work, including additional time and nurturing, scaffolding, instructional design, and understanding students’ comfort level working together online. The findings of this study are discussed and recommendations are provided for the development and design of meaningful online collaborative learning.

Keywords care theory · collaborative learning · instructional design · online learning · student support

CoI focusTeaching presence
Study designInterview SS
Data analysisContent analysis
Sample size4
Study aim"... to identify emergent themes regarding higher education instructors’ perceptions concerning the provision of collaborative learning activities and opportunities in their online classroom."
Finding"The unique contribution of this study is the emergence of care-at-the-core of online learner support, including nurturing, helping, and supporting students in collaborative learning."
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar

Viewed by 0 distinct readers


The evaluations below represent the judgements of our readers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the CoI editors.


A case study of teaching presence in virtual problem-based learning groups
Kamin, Carol S.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Deterding, Robin R.; Younger, Monica; Wade, Ted
Interest in conducting problem-based learning (PBL) on-line has increased to meet student and physician schedules. Little research describes skills needed to facilitate PBL on-line. In this paper we studied teaching ...
Match: teaching presence; content analysis; instructional design; united states

Dual Perspectives on the Contribution of On-Site Facilitators to Teaching Presence in a Blended Learning Environment
de la Varre, Claire; Keane, Julie; Irvin, Matthew J.
This study examines online instructors’ views of on-site facilitators’ practices and activities that help high school students taking online courses. A qualitative analysis of end-of-course interview data with ...
Match: teaching presence; content analysis; online learning; united states

E-collaborative learning experience, interdependencies of presences and learning outcomes: evidence of mediating and moderating effects
Yussiff, Alimatu-Saadia; Ahmad, Wan Fatimah Wan; Mustapha, Emy Elyanee
Researchers have reported mixed-findings regarding the impact of individual instruction, the class as a whole, and the use of small-group on learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ...
Match: collaborative; teaching presence; collaborative learning

Collaborative Learning and Learner Engagement within the Community of Inquiry Model: A Systematic Review
Das, Runu Mani; Madhusudan, J. V.
The Community of Inquiry (CoI) approach is one of the most recent methods aimed at enhancing learner engagement in online learning environments. This model centers on three key elements: teaching presence, social ...
Match: collaborative; collaborative learning; online learning

Using Asynchronous Audio Feedback to Enhance Teaching Presence and Students' Sense of Community
Ice, Philip; Curtis, Reagan; Phillips, Perry; Wells, John
This paper reports the findings of a case study in which audio feedback replaced text-based feedback in asynchronous courses. Previous research has demonstrated that participants in online courses can build effective ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning; united states

Teaching and social presences supporting basic needs satisfaction in online learning environments: How can presences and basic needs happily meet online?
Turk, Murat; Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.
This study examined the hypothesized relationships between perceived teaching presence and social presence accounting for social-contextual factors in online learning environments and online students’ basic ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning; united states

Does "teaching presence" exist in online MBA courses?
Arbaugh, J. B.; Hwang, Alvin
This paper assesses the construct validity of the dimensions of teaching presence, one of three types of presence articulated in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. (2000). ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning; united states

A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses
Shea, Peter; Li, Chun Sau; Pickett, Alexandra
This paper focuses on two components of a model for online teaching and learning—“teaching presence” and “community”. It is suggested that previous research points to the critical role that community plays in ...
Match: teaching presence; online learning; united states

From posts to patterns: A metric to characterize discussion board activity in online courses
Bliss, Catherine A.; Lawrence, Betty
Asynchronous text based discussion boards are included in many online courses, however strategies to compare their use within and between courses, from a disciplinary standpoint, have not been well documented in the ...
Match: teaching presence; content analysis; online learning; united states

Exploring social and cognitive presences in communities of inquiry to perform higher cognitive tasks
Tirado Morueta, Ramón; Maraver López, Pablo; Hernando Gómez, Ángel; Harris, Victor W.
The purpose of the current study was to explore social and cognitive relationships among students when they are solving complex cognitive tasks in online discussion forums (self-regulated). An online course targeting ...
Match: content analysis; collaborative learning; online learning
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.