The Community of Inquiry makes use of cookies. By continuing, you consent to this use. More information.
Strategies to promote Cognitive Presence in asynchronous online discussions
Sadaf, Ayesha and Olesova, Larisa

Secondary titleA 20-year systematic review of empirical research
Published31 January 2024
Book titleThe Design of Digital Learning Environments: Online and Blended Applications of the Community of Inquiry
Pages 234–255
EditorsCleveland-Innes, Martha F. · Stenbom, Stefan · Garrison, D. Randy

Based on the systematic review of empirical research findings published over two decades (2000 to 2020), this chapter will provide guidance for promoting Cognitive Presence via appropriate instructional strategies in asynchronous online discussions. From the initial search of 181 studies, a total of 14 peer-reviewed studies were reviewed. The studies were carried out in higher education, with the majority in the United States within the field of Education. Almost half of the studies used a quantitative research design, of which discussion transcripts were the prominent method for data collection. Content analysis was the most used data analysis tool. Results revealed that the majority of students’ posts in asynchronous discussion fell into the Exploration and Integration phases, with a small percentage within the Triggering Events and Resolution phases. Among examined instructional strategies, we found that case-based and debate strategies supported a higher level of Cognitive Presence, followed by discussions structured with the Practical Inquiry Model. In order to promote Cognitive Presence in asynchronous online discussions, instructors should carefully structure discussion tasks using collaborative strategies and instructional design elements focused on the process of Cognitive Presence, helping learners progress through all phases of practical inquiry.

Other information9781003246206, 10.4324/9781003246206-16
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar

Viewed by 0 distinct readers


The evaluations below represent the judgements of our readers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the CoI editors.


Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition
Garrison, D. Randy; Bourne, J.; Moore, J. C.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting effective, higher-order learning. It begins by exploring the properties of ...

Digging Beneath the Surface: Analyzing the Complexity of Instructors' Participation in Asynchronous Discussion
Clarke, Lane Whitney; Bartholomew, Audrey
This study is situated at the nexus of contradictory research about the role of the instructor in asynchronous discussions. The goal of this descriptive study was to provide a deeper analysis of instructor comments and ...

Navigating the role of teacher educator in the asynchronous learning environment: emerging questions and innovative responses
Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.
As the COVID-19 pandemic has forced all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to transfer teaching to online platforms, intricate questions in relation to remote teaching and learning dominate the discourse. Teacher ...

Evaluating Online Discussions: Four Difference Frames of Analysis
Meyer, Katrina
This study uses four different “frames” to analyze 17 online discussions that occurred in two doctoral level classes in educational leadership. Two of the frames were developmental models: King and Kitchener’s ...

Facilitating critical thinking in asynchronous online discussion: comparison between peer- and instructor-redirection
Oh, Eunjung Grace; Huang, Wen-Hao David; Hedayati Mehdiabadi, Amir; Ju, Boreum
The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare learners’ critical thinking and interaction during an asynchronous online discussion when peer- or instructor-facilitation was provided. Current literature on online ...

Using Asynchronous Audio Feedback to Enhance Teaching Presence and Students' Sense of Community
Ice, Philip; Curtis, Reagan; Phillips, Perry; Wells, John
This paper reports the findings of a case study in which audio feedback replaced text-based feedback in asynchronous courses. Previous research has demonstrated that participants in online courses can build effective ...

A content analytic comparison of FTF and ALN case-study discussions
Heckman, Robert; Annabi, Hala
While much research has shown that ALNs can produce learning equivalent to FTF classrooms, there has been little empirical research that explicitly and rigorously explores similarities and differences between the ...

Creating a Community of Inquiry in Large-Enrollment Online Courses: An Exploratory Study on the Effect of Protocols within Online Discussions
Chen, Baiyun; deNoyelles, Aimee; Zydney, Janet; Patton, Kerry
It can be difficult to foster focused and effective communication in online discussions within large classes. Implementing protocols is a strategy that may help students communicate more effectively, facilitate their ...

A systematic review of the Community of Inquiry survey
Stenbom, Stefan
The purpose of this paper is to gain knowledge about the implementation and development of the Community of Inquiry survey. This paper describes a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal papers where the survey has ...
Match: systematic

Creating a community of inquiry in online environments: An exploratory study on the effect of a protocol on interactions within asynchronous discussions
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju
The purpose of our research was to examine the influence of an online protocol on asynchronous discussions. A mixed-methods study compared two online graduate classes: one that used a protocol and one that did not use a ...
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.