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Strategies to promote Cognitive Presence in asynchronous online discussions
Sadaf, Ayesha and Olesova, Larisa

Secondary titleA 20-year systematic review of empirical research
Published31 January 2024
Book titleThe Design of Digital Learning Environments: Online and Blended Applications of the Community of Inquiry
Pages 234–255
PublisherRoutledge
EditorsCleveland-Innes, Martha F. · Stenbom, Stefan · Garrison, D. Randy

ABSTRACT
Based on the systematic review of empirical research findings published over two decades (2000 to 2020), this chapter will provide guidance for promoting Cognitive Presence via appropriate instructional strategies in asynchronous online discussions. From the initial search of 181 studies, a total of 14 peer-reviewed studies were reviewed. The studies were carried out in higher education, with the majority in the United States within the field of Education. Almost half of the studies used a quantitative research design, of which discussion transcripts were the prominent method for data collection. Content analysis was the most used data analysis tool. Results revealed that the majority of students’ posts in asynchronous discussion fell into the Exploration and Integration phases, with a small percentage within the Triggering Events and Resolution phases. Among examined instructional strategies, we found that case-based and debate strategies supported a higher level of Cognitive Presence, followed by discussions structured with the Practical Inquiry Model. In order to promote Cognitive Presence in asynchronous online discussions, instructors should carefully structure discussion tasks using collaborative strategies and instructional design elements focused on the process of Cognitive Presence, helping learners progress through all phases of practical inquiry.


DOI10.4324/9781003246206-16
URLhttp://doi.org/10.4324/9781003246206-16
Other information9781003246206, 10.4324/9781003246206-16
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