The Community of Inquiry makes use of cookies. By continuing, you consent to this use. More information.
Manifestations of Cognitive Presence in Blended Learning Classes of the Philippine K–12 System
Villanueva, Juliet Aleta Rivera · Redmond, Petrea · Galligan, Linda

JournalOnline Learning
Volume 26, Issue 1
CountryPhilippines, Asia

Through an exploratory case study, this research sought to determine the applicability of the Community of Inquiry in the K–12 setting. There are research gaps to leverage support for blended learning and flexible learning options to benefit Filipino youth and school-leavers under the Alternative Delivery Mode of the Philippine K–12 system. This study was driven by the following research questions: How is cognitive presence manifested in the blended learning interactions? In what ways do the interactions of cognitive presence with the other presences characterize learning community building? Three blended learning classes were examined based on data collected through surveys, student focus group discussions, teacher interviews, class observations, and archived data. Through constant comparison analysis and descriptive statistics, evidence revealed cognitive presence across its categories in the form of connectedness, collaborative work, trust and reciprocation, and shared views on technology by K–12 teachers and learners. The analysis affirmed “regulating learning” as the intersection of cognitive presence and teaching presence. Implications for practice and recommendations for further research are discussed through the study's proposed modifications on the cognitive presence categories, indicators, and the survey instrument for the K–12 setting where teacher-directed pedagogies or collaborative inquiry processes have not been thoroughly co-opted.

Keywords Cognitive presence · blended learning · Community of Inquiry · Philippines · K-12, shared metacognition · self-regulation

CoI focusCognitive presence
MethodologyMixed methods unspecified
Study designCase study
Data analysisMixed Method
InstrumentCoI survey
ContributionMultiple contributions
ExportBibTex · EndNote · Tagged XML · Google Scholar

Viewed by 0 distinct readers


The evaluations below represent the judgements of our readers and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the CoI editors.


Fostering Cognitive Presence in Online Courses: A Systematic Review (2008-2020)
Moore, Robert L; Miller, Courtney N.
Within the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, cognitive presence has been central to success in higher education settings. This systematic review examined 24 articles published between 20082020 that empirically ...
Match: cognitive presence; community of inquiry

Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education
Garrison, D. Randy; Anderson, Terry; Archer, Walter
This article describes a practical approach to judging the nature and quality of critical discourse in a computer conference. A model of a critical community of inquiry frames the research. A core concept in defining a ...
Match: cognitive presence; community of inquiry

A flexible framework for online collaborative learning
Redmond, Petrea; Lock, Jennifer V.
This paper presents a framework for online collaborative learning, also known as telecollaboration. At the centre of this flexible framework are online collaborative educational experiences where knowledge creation and ...
Match: redmond, petrea; community of inquiry

Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition
Garrison, D. Randy; Bourne, J.; Moore, J. C.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting effective, higher-order learning. It begins by exploring the properties of ...
Match: cognitive presence

Effects of Using a Neuroeducational Intervention to Enhance Perseverance for Online EdD and EdS Students
Cadle, Charles
Developing and maintaining a "completion mindset" is a necessary mental condition for online educational doctorate (EdD) and educational specialist (EdS) students to obtain their advanced degrees. The purpose of this ...
Match: cognitive presence

Exploring social and cognitive presences in communities of inquiry to perform higher cognitive tasks
Tirado Morueta, Ramón; Maraver López, Pablo; Hernando Gómez, Ángel; Harris, Victor W.
The purpose of the current study was to explore social and cognitive relationships among students when they are solving complex cognitive tasks in online discussion forums (self-regulated). An online course targeting ...
Match: cognitive presence

Technology Readiness as a Predictor of Cognitive Presence in Online Higher Education
Abraham, David Rajan
Online education depends on a variety of technology tools for cognitive-related activities; however, it is unclear whether the current proliferation of tools is an indicator of a learner’s readiness to use them ...
Match: cognitive presence

Determination of perception of community of inquiry
Olpak, Yusuf Ziya; Yağci, Mustafa; Başarmak, Uğur
Community of inquiry (CoI) is the conceptual framework which describes critical prerequisite factors for deep and meaningful learning in online learning environments. Based on the literature concerning the CoI ...
Match: cognitive presence; community of inquiry

20 Years of the Community of Inquiry Framework
Castellanos-Reyes, Daniela
The Community of Inquiry framework is a collaborative-constructivist process model that describes the essential elements of a successful online higher education learning experience. This history column entry briefly ...
Match: cognitive presence; community of inquiry

Applying Online Instructor Presence Amidst Changing Times
Rosser-Majors, Michelle L.; Rebecor, Sandra; McMahon, Christine; Anderson, Stephanie L.
Online learning can be challenging for both the students and instructors. Students can feel isolated or intimidated by the asynchronous environment, and instructors may find it difficult to connect with students as well ...
Match: cognitive presence; community of inquiry
The Community of Inquiry is a project of Athabasca University, Mount Royal University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, as well as researchers and members of the CoI community.